Ophiolite complexes essay

Tethyan ophiolites are named for the ancient Tethys ocean, and are found in the eastern Mediterranean areas Troodos in Cyprus, Semail in Oman.

The mantle peridotite samples dredged from the mid-oceanic ridges are mostly lherzolite, while those dredged from supra-subduction zones trench walls are mostly harzburgite.

List of ophiolites

Within the peridotite are many dikes of Ophiolite complexes essay and dunite. At Samail this entire sequence is 15 km thick. In particular, trace elements associated with subduction zone island arc volcanics tend to be high in ophiolites, whereas trace elements that are high in ocean ridge basalts but low in subduction zone volcanics are also low in ophiolites.

Ophiolite assemblages in collisional mountain belts, such as the Alps, represent incipient ocean crust at thinned continental Ophiolite complexes essay formed during rifting and continental drift that has been emplaced into the collision zone.

It appears that continental accretion sediments, if carried by the downgoing plate into a subduction zone, will jam it up and cause subduction to cease, resulting Ophiolite complexes essay the rebound of the accretionary prism with fore-arc lithosphere ophiolite on top of it.

Cordilleran ophiolites are named for the Cordillera mountain belts of western North America. Often, ore bodies such as iron -rich sulfide deposits are found above highly altered epidosites epidote - quartz rocks that are evidence of the now-relict black smokerswhich continue to operate within the seafloor spreading centers of ocean ridges today.

Ophiolites are common in orogenic belts of Mesozoic age, like those formed by the closure of the Tethys Ocean. The same phenomenon occurs near oceanic ridges in a formation known as hydrothermal vents. Ophiolite Belts in the World 1.

Rocks originating on the seafloor show chemical composition comparable to unaltered ophiolite layers, from primary composition elements such as silicon and titanium to trace elements.

The younger Mikabu and Setogawa-Mineoka ophiolites underlies the Jurassic accretionary complexes in the Pacific coastal areas. However, radiometric and stratigraphic dating has found ophiolites to have undergone emplacement when young and hot: The collision of the continent and island arc initiates a new subduction zone at the back-arc basin, dipping in the opposite direction as the first.

Cross-sections simplified from R. Ophiolite and oceanic lithosphere Ophiolite is a stratified igneous rock complex composed of upper basalt member, middle gabbro member and lower peridotite member Fig. The age of ophiolite formation is often quite close to the age of their emplacement into the continental crust.

The rocks probably formed in the Cretaceous not far from the what is now the Persian Gulf.

However, the circum-Pacific orogenic belts bear ophiolites of widely varying ages, including at least two pulses early Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The peridotite is overlain by dunite an intrusive igneous rock made mostly of the mineral olivine that grades upward to gabbro an intrusive igneous rock made mostly of plagioclase and clinopyroxene - augite.

Each pulse corresponds to the period of worldwide magmatic event as represented by voluminous granite intrusions. Most continental crust ophiolites are assigned to either the Tethyan or Cordilleran groups, which have different modes of emplacement yet are both SSZ in origin.

A few deep drill holes into oceanic crust have intercepted gabbro, but it is not layered like ophiolite gabbro.

Figure 2 BACK 3. The sedimentary cover correspond to Layer 1, basaltic pillow lava matches Layer 2, sheeted dikes and gabbro with occasional plagiogranite intrusions are correlated to Layer 3, and ultramafic cumulates and residual mantle peridotite represent Layer 4 mantle.

The study concluded that oceanic and ophiolitic velocity structures were identical, pointing to the origin of ophiolite complexes as oceanic crust. For example, plagioclase, pyroxenes, and olivine in the sheeted dikes and lavas will alter to albite, chloriteand serpentine, respectively.

Sequence of rocks simplified from R.

The rocks were later thrust pushed uphill at a low angle westward onto the Arabian shield. The circum-Pacific ophiolite belts are also characterized by extreme petrologic diversity. In circum-Pacific orogenic belts, however, ophiolites generally lie on younger accretionary complexes.

From base to top the ophiolite is made of: The stratigraphic sequences observed in some ophiolites suggest origins in lithosphere-forming, spreading centers at mid-oceanic ridges.

Ophiolite complexes are remnants of ocean crust and underlying oceanic mantle, which have been embedded in continental crust.

As subduction takes place, the buoyant continent and island arc complex converge, initially colliding with the promontories. The occurrence of ophiolite complexes within orogenic belts documents the former existence of ocean basins now consumed by subduction, so providing supporting evidence for plate tectonics.Beneath these "sheeted dike complexes" are bodies of gabbro, or coarse-grained basaltic rock, and beneath them are the huge bodies of peridotite that make up the upper mantle.

The partial melting of peridotite is what gives rise to the overlying gabbro and basalt (read more about the earth's crust). METALLOGENETIC MAPS OF THE OPHIOLITE BELTS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES By Jocelyn A.

Peterson INTRODUCTION Ophiolite is a distinctive assemblage of mafic and ultramafic rocks which form a sequence, from bottom to ultramafic complexes, result from weathering and emplacement of ophiolites (Coleman, ).

An ophiolite is a section of the Earth's oceanic crust and the underlying upper mantle that has been uplifted and exposed above sea level and often emplaced onto continental crustal rocks.

The study concluded that oceanic and ophiolitic velocity structures were identical, pointing to the origin of ophiolite complexes as oceanic crust. Ophiolite complexes are the suite of rocks that became the product of the spreading centers of plate boundaries.

Ophiolites or “snake stones” are originally coined by Alexandre Brongniart in mainly because of its green rocks comprising of. Ophiolite complexes, or ophiolites (for 'snake stones') are rock sequences interpreted as being uplifted sections of oceanic crust and subjacent upper mantle that have become emplaced within rocks of the continental crustal.

The age of ophiolite formation is often quite close to the age of their emplacement into the continental crust. The geochemistry and composition of peridotite rock-forming minerals from blocks in the serpentinite mélange of Karaginskii Island have been studied.

The composition features of the rock-forming.

Ophiolite complexes essay
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