But the parallel focus was informal, and officially unacknowledged. In particular it is impossible to identify any unifying theory of non-formal or informal learning to which the entire field of practice could subscribe.
Further details of this site can be found in Scaife Whilst the CACHE course has been aimed at a particular occupation, this course, at least in theory, was more generally aimed at developing basic employability skills and attributes.
The informal educator assumes that the learner wishes to attain knowledge or some skill or attitude. Thus, the tutor will react to the ways in which students dress — not to enforce a previously determined dress code, but to give impromptu advice about why a particular item of clothing would be unsuitable when working in a nursery.
The changes to which it is still being subjected mean that it will increasingly have to use accepted measures — for example those developed by the Wider Benefits of Learning project — to demonstrate and quantify the learning which occurs. This can be seen in much traditional local authority adult education some of which has survived the funding changes of the last ten yearswhere classes in cookery, DIY, crafts and exercise co-existed with the pursuit of more cerebral studies.
Next, we look at these issues through some exemplars from practice.
In doing that, we would have to address the following problems: The students spent their whole week in one mobile classroom, on the edge of a suburban college campus. Learning mediated through agents of authority Learning mediated through learner democracy Fixed and limited time-frame Learning is the main explicit purpose Learning is either of secondary significance or is implicit Learning is applicable in a range of contexts Learning is context-specific There are some obvious but daunting problems, if such an approach was intended to produce an accurate means of classifying actual learning activities and situations as either formal or informal.
The explicit focus was on the eventual performance of a dramatic production. But there is another, more serious problem. It also enables us to consider some of the complex issues surrounding the transfer of informal learning practices to more formal domains, including unintended consequences that may arise.
On this particular course, the college based and workplace components are closely integrated. One tutor talked about having to know when they had had enough, and when the planned lesson had to be slowed down, adapted or even abandoned, if they were not able to cope.
Even if only a majority of these criteria were rigorously applied, very little learning would fit completely into either ideal type. Over the last 25 years, we have witnessed a spectacular increase in its use in support of learning across a range of contexts, from the professional development of business managers to interventions with socially excluded youth.
This analysis changed the direction of our research. This connects to our earlier observation that workplaces are structured in ways that result in highly unequal access to learning, and major variations in the quality and type of learning that is possible.
Some are predominantly literature based, others draw upon empirical investigations, conducted by some of us. This implicit assumption of informality is not least because ACE as currently understood in Britain has its roots in practices which pre-date the establishment of the state system of elementary education, and which have often been seen as alternative, additional or oppositional to the practices of formal schooling.
In it, we split ACE into three types: They learned how to behave here, with these fellow students siblings and these particular tutors parents. Whilst this aspect of ACE retains a social perspective, it has often constructed adult learning in terms of individual social aspiration and mobility.
We are developing an overview of the extent to which notions of formal, non-formal and informal learning are manifested in the academic and practitioner literature of adult and community education ACE.Eight Principles of Good Practice for All Experiential Learning Activities.
Regardless of the experiential learning activity, both the experience and the learning are fundamental. non-formal learning: mapping the conceptual terrain. a c onsultation r eport In this piece Helen Colley, Phil Hodkinson & Janice Malcolm provide a very helpful overview of different discourses around non-formal and informal learning and find that there are few, if any, learning situations where either informal or formal elements are completely absent.Download