On November 24,a group of eight screenwriters and two directors, later known as the Hollywood Tenwere sentenced to serve up to a year in prison for refusing to testify. In the s, amid widespread speculation about the collapse of the film industry, British annual production reached an all-time low.
Few national movements have influenced international cinema as strongly as the French New Wave. German cinematographers Michael Ballhaus, Karl Walter Lindenlaub and composers Hans Zimmer, Christopher Franke were also among the more notable artisans working in Hollywood films at the turn of the 21st century.
Shindo is best known for his poetic semidocumentary Hadaka no shima ; The Island and the bizarre, folkloristic Onibaba Matthewa brilliant semidocumentary reconstruction of the life of Christ with Marxist overtones. Only Egypt had a truly active film industry for the first half of the 20th century; the development of cinema elsewhere on the continent was largely the result of individual efforts.
In the Indian government established the Film Institute of India to train aspiring directors. The studios, afraid to antagonize already shrinking audiences, then initiated an unofficial policy of blacklistingrefusing to employ any person even suspected of having communist associations.
The Czechoslovak films that reached international audiences during this period were widely acclaimed for their freshness and formal experimentation, but they faced official disapproval at home, and many were suppressed for being politically subversive. Throughout the blacklisting era, filmmakers refrained from making any but the most conservative motion pictures; controversial topics or new ideas were carefully avoided.
Several outstanding German directors and production artists did emerge, but most of them achieved their greatest success in Hollywood. They were all very much alike and, in a sense, were all part of a single large film whose subject was the ordinary lives of ordinary people and the sacred beauty therein.
The New Wave made France the leading centre of Modernist and postmodern film and film theory, a position it continued to hold for many years. Africa The development of an indigenous film culture in Africa occurred at different moments in the history of the continent.
Its ultimate effect was to deconstruct the narrative language that had evolved over the previous 60 years and to create a reflexive cinema, or meta-cinema, whose techniques provided a continuous comment on its own making.
The first films of the New Wave were independently produced dramatic shorts shot in mm by the Cahiers critics in —57, but was the year that brought the movement to international prominence, when each of its three major figures made their first features.
Its success led to the establishment of a subsidiary, FilmFour Ltd. YugoslaviaRomania, and Bulgaria, unlike their more sophisticated Warsaw Pact allies, did not begin to develop film industries until after World War II.
Wenderson the other hand, was profoundly postmodern in his contemplation of alienation through spatial metaphor.
The minor companies, however, owned modest studio facilities and had lost nothing by the Paramount decrees because they controlled no theatres. Its documentary texture, postrecorded sound track, and improvisational quality became the hallmark of the Neorealist movement.
Antonioni then began to use colour expressionistically in Deserto rosso ; Red Desert and Blow-Up to convey alienation and abstraction from human feeling, and all of his later works in some way concerned the breakdown of personal relationships Zabriskie Point, ; Identificazione di una donna [Identification of a Woman], and of identity itself Professione:Both during and soon after World War 1, politicians and pundits began referring to the devastating conflict as "the war to end all wars." One can hardly blame them for.
The war years and post-World War II trends Decline of the Hollywood studios. During the U.S. involvement in World War II, the Hollywood film industry cooperated closely with the government to support its war-aims information campaign.
Following the declaration of war on Japan, the government created a Bureau of Motion Picture Affairs to .Download